The intense geographical relief and great biodiversity are the main features of the Tzoumerka area.
High altitude differences and climate diversity favor the development of rich flora and fauna including rare and typical species of the mountainous and alpine zone.
Higher than 1,200-1,300 meters, Tzoumerka is a treeless area with perennial shrub and bare peaks that form an impressive Alpine landscape. The species most frequently occurring up to 1,500 meters are harebacks, wild roses,wild pear trees and rarely mountainous juniper trees.
On the eastern side of the mountains there are large areas of herbaceous and bushy vegetation that have received the influence of grazing, so-called “steppe grasslands”.
At the lower altitudes we come across forests with heathers, oak trees, firs, black oaks, laurel. On the banks of the rivers, the ecosystems are characterized by willows, pines and plane trees.
Up to now, more than 400 plant species have been recorded, of which about eighty are ecologically significant.
Τhe Tzoumerka fauna consists of wolves, foxes, bears, hares, deer, wild boars, roe deer and badgers, wild cats while the lush vegetation of the gorge offers shelter and food to various species of smaller mammals such as dormice (Glis Glis) and squirrels. The species of a wild goat( Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica) was previously found on the cliffs of Tzoumerka.
Birds also abound, including peregrine falcons,eagles ,hoopoes,partridges,golden eagles vultures, as well as other smaller birds.
Many of these species are rare or threatened with extinction. It is estimated that around 100 species of birds are found in the area. Some of these species inhabit permanently, others use the area as a place of summer inhabitant and others pass through the migratory period.
Although the rate of endemic species of flora, fauna and bird fauna is not particularly high, the richness, variety and rarity of the species resulted in declaring a large part of the area a National Park (National Park of Tzoumerka, Peristeri and Arachthos Gorge) in 2009.